13.14.5. Repair of insignificant damages of a body
For the publication of more detailed information on works on repair of a body address to special to "The repair manual of a body of the car”.
Repair of insignificant scratches of a body
If scratch is superficial and does not reach some panel metal, regenerative procedure is very simple. Slightly rub the damaged area with a reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste for removal of exfoliating particles of paint and removal from a surrounding surface of a protective wax layer. Rinse the processed surface pure water.
With thin brush put on scratch a layer of external automobile paint; put paint with thin layers until the paint surface in scratch will not appear level with with a layer of the intact paint surrounding scratch. Let's to fresh paint harden within not less than two weeks, then it is greatest possible disguise transition from again painted surface to old paint by a natiraniye it a reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste. In summary put a protective wax covering.
If scratch reached some body metal that can be at the bottom of corrosion of its metal, regenerative procedure will differ from given above. With a penknife remove from a scratch bottom free particles of a rust, then for prevention further emergence of corrosion cover scratch with rust inhibitor. By means of a nylon or rubber applikator fill a scratch cavity with shpaklevochny paste. If necessary for paste thinning when filling narrow scratches mix it with cellulose solvent. Before paste will stiffen, moisten the finger which has been wrapped up by a soft cotton fabric, in cellulose solvent, and fast movement smooth down the puttied surface of scratch; it will provide easy concavity of the processed surface. Now scratch can be painted over, as it was described above in this Section.
Repair of the deformed surfaces
Deep dents first of all are extended before giving of the form which is most approached to the initial by it. The complete recovery of a form is impossible, since metal of the damaged panel is stretched under the influence of shock loading. Giving of the deformed surface of level approximately on 3 mm lower than level of the surrounding not deformed part of a body is optimum. In case of absolutely superficial dent at all has no sense to try to extend the panel. In the presence of access to inside of the deformed site restoration of a form can be carried out by dent percussion by a hammer with wooden or plastic the brisk. At percussion, for damping of blows of a hammer and prevention of a flexure of more extensive by that, than it is required, a panel site, densely press to the damaged site outside of the suitable size wooden whetstone which will absorb blows of a hammer and т.о. not to allow emergence of "paunch" on the big areas of a body.
In that case when deformation of a site of the body having double structure or if access to seamy side of a dent is absent for other reason takes place, it is necessary to apply other equipment of a pulling. To Nasverlita in the deformed area, in particular in most its deep part, a series of small openings. Then screw in in openings long саморезы so that they were reliably fixed in metal. Now the form of the panel can be restored by a dent pulling, grasping flat-nose pliers acting heads саморезов.
The following step is paint removal from the damaged area and on 2.5 cm round it. This procedure is most easier for executing by means of the wire or abrasive nozzle fixed in a cartridge of an electrodrill though it is possible to make it manually an emery paper not less effectively. Final procedure on preparation for a shpaklevaniye is the zatsarapyvaniye of a naked metal surface a screw-driver or a file shaft, or, as alternative, a nasverlivaniye in the damaged area of a series of small openings. It will provide the best gearing of a shpaklevka with metal.
For completion of repair address to the Section on shpaklevochny works and coloring.
Restoration of the holes formed as a result of corrosion, and holes
Remove all paint from the damaged site and on 2.5 cm round it, manually or by means of nozzles on an electrodrill. After that it is possible to define a damage rate or corrosion and to solve, whether has sense to make repair or it is more reasonable to replace the panel entirely (if it is possible). New panels are not so expensive, as many think, and often quicker and more effectively to replace the panel, than to restore the huge rusted sites of a body.
Remove from the damaged panel all details of furnish, that can serve as templates for restoration of an initial form of the panel (such, as cases of forward headlights etc.). Then, by means of scissors for are sharp a tin or a nozhovochny cloth, remove everything strongly damaged by corrosion and loose pieces of metal of the panel. For creation of the easy deepening necessary for a shpaklevaniye, bend opening edges inside.
Remove from a surface of the remained metal a poroshkoobrazny rust. Process the struck area rust inhibitor; process also iznanochny surface if to it there is an access.
Before starting a shpaklevaniye, it is necessary to partition off an opening somehow. It can be made by means of an aluminum or plastic grid or an aluminum tape. For a peregorazhivaniye of big openings it is best of all to use an aluminum or plastic grid, or a mat from fiber glass. Cut off the piece of a grid approximately suitable on the size and a form, then impose it on an opening so that its edges were below level of the surrounding intact surface of the panel of a body. The grid can be fixed on a place by means of several lumps of a shpaklevka located on its perimeter.
The aluminum tape is applied to a peregorazhivaniye of small or very narrow openings. Wind off from the reel a piece of a tape of the necessary length, form it scissors approximately demanded, then remove the paper sticker protecting a sticky layer (if that is available), and paste a tape on an opening, having partitioned off it. If it is not enough width of one piece of a tape, it is possible to impose some pieces with overlapping. Carefully smooth down tape edges the screw-driver handle, having provided its reliable sticking to seamy side of metal surrounding an opening.
Body repair - a shpaklevaniye and coloring
Before to start performance of procedures of this Subsection, familiarize with information of the previous.
The set of shpaklevka of various type is issued, however the patent sets consisting of a tin with a shpaklevka and a tube with a hardener best of all are suitable for this type of works. For ensuring smooth overlaying of paste with observance of a demanded contour it is necessary to use a wide flexible plastic or nylon applikator.
On a pure piece of a cardboard or plywood mix a small amount of a shpaklevka. Carefully dose out components, observing instructions of the manufacturer on packing since addition of the wrong quantity of a hardener can be at the bottom of too fast or too slow hardening of a mix. By means of an applikator put the prepared shpaklevka on the surface prepared for a shpaklevaniye; for giving of a surface of the necessary level and a contour carry out an applikator across it. On reaching the confidant to original a contour of a processed surface stop shpaklevka drawing since at excessive hobby it can become "sticky" and start to stick to an applikator. Continue to put thin layers of a shpaklevka with intervals 20 minutes until the puttied surface will not start to act slightly over the intact area of the panel.
After hardening surplus of a shpaklevka can be removed with a metal level or a file. Further the puttied surface should be processed a waterproof emery paper gradually утончающихся grades, since No. 40 and finishing No. 400. For giving of a processed surface of the absolute plane always turn paper round flat rubber, pith or wooden whetstone. In the course of processing constantly moisten waterproof paper with water. It will provide absolute smoothness of a surface at a final stage of polishing.
After end of this stage of works the processed surface should appear surrounded with a ring of naked metal which, in turn, should be led round by the nullified edge of good paint. Rinse the processed surface with pure water, having removed from it all dust formed as a result of polishing.
Spray on all surface of processing by a thin layer a light first coat is will help to reveal all defects of processing visually. Liquidate all allowed flaws, having covered them with a fresh shpaklevka, and again carry out surface processing by an emery paper. Repeat this procedure until will reach result satisfying you. Rinse finally processed surface with pure water and let's to it dry completely.
Now the surface is ready to coloring. Work with аэрозолью should be made in the warm, dry, windless and easy atmosphere. These conditions are most easier for observing at work in the volume closed room but if all of you are compelled to work in the open air, it is necessary to choose day of carrying out painting carefully. At work indoors moisten a working platform with water to beat a dust which is available in air. If coloring of the separate panel of a body is made, cover panels surrounding it; it will help to minimize effect of easy difference of tones between old and new paints. Also it is necessary to cover details of furnish of a body (the chromeplated slips, door handles, etc.). For a prikryvaniye use a sticky tape and the newspapers laid in some layers.
Before the coloring beginning carefully stir up an aerosol ballonchik, then test it on a trial surface, achieving the necessary level of skill. Cover a surface of processing with a thick layer of a first coat, reaching thickness drawing of several thin layers, instead of one thick. A waterproof emery paper No. 400 process a surface to ideal smoothness. In the course of processing periodically moisten a surface and waterproof paper with water. In summary once again rinse a surface with pure water and let's to it dry completely before paint drawing.
Put the top paint coat, again achieving thickness by consecutive drawing of several thin layers. Begin coloring from the center of a restored surface and circular movements move to the periphery until there will be painted all surface and about 5 more cm of surrounding old paint. In 10-15 minutes after drawing of the last paint coat remove covering material from the next panels and furnish elements.
Let's to paint dry out not less than two weeks, then by means of a reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste it is greatest possible disguise transition from again painted surface to old paint. In summary put a protective wax covering.
Because producers of cars in increasing frequency use plastic elements of a body (such as bumpers, spoilers and in certain cases even large panels of a body), correction of more serious damages of these elements is reduced or to its assignment on experts in this area, or to complete replacement of elements. Repair of similar damages by the owner of the car is almost impracticable in view of considerable cost of the equipment and the materials necessary for its performance. In a basis of technology of repair the prodelyvaniye in plasticity along the line of a crack of a flute by means of a grinding nozzle on an electrodrill is necessary. After that the burst detail cooks by means of the gun with hot air which melts the rod of a plastic filler enclosed in a flute. Then excess of plastic is removed and the surface is ground to smoothness. It is important, that the rod of a plastic filler was picked up correctly, since. components of a body can be made of different grades of plastic (polycarbonate, ABS, polypropylene etc.)
Less serious damages (teases, grazes, insignificant cracks, etc.) can be liquidated by the owner of the car with use of a two-componental epoksidny shpaklevka. Mixed in equal proportions, it is put also, as well as a shpaklevka for metal surfaces. There is it usually in 20-30 minutes, ready to polishing and coloring.
If the owner completely replaces an element independently, or restores it by means of an epoksidny shpaklevka, it faces a problem of search of the suitable paint compatible to that grade of plastic of which the detail is made. At one time use of universal paint for plastic components was impossible because of a variety of grades of applied plastic. Standard paints in general badly incorporate to plastic or rubber surfaces. Now, however, there were sets for furnish of plastic details of a body which include a first coat for preliminary processing, a secondary first coat and the top decorative paint. Sets are usually accompanied by the exhaustive instruction, but in general the technology consists that the preliminary first coat which should dry within not less than 30 minutes at first is put. Then the secondary first coat is put, and after its drying within an hour the layer of external paint specially picked up for color is put. As a result you receive correctly painted component, on which paint will be rather plastic to be bent together with plastic or rubber that does not occur to standard paint.